Unix Command Line
One of the scariest things about using a Unix based system is learning the file architecture and running programs through the command line interface, especially if you’ve be brought up on Windows as many of have!
Well thankfully, we here at MESA sympathise and we have found a few resources to help you out. A great series of introductory screencasts on the unix shell can be found here, and a list of the more common commands and their effect is compiled below.
/ “root” directory
/usr directory usr (sub-directory of / “root” directory)
/usr/potato potato is a subdirectory of /usr
. current directory
.. parent directory to current directory
pwd Show the “present working directory”, or current directory.
cd Change current directory to your HOME directory.
cd /usr/potato Change current directory to potato
cd INIT Change current directory to INIT which is a sub-directory of the current directory.
ls list contents of a directory
ls -l list a directory in long (detailed) format
ls -a List the current directory including hidden files. Hidden files start with “.”
ls -F lists contents of directory with all sub-directories followed with a /
chmod u=rwx file Changes the permissions of file to be rwx for the user
You must be the owner of the file/directory or be root before you can do any of these things.
cp file1 file2 copies file1 and names the copy file2
mv file1 newname move or rename a file
mv file1 ~/AAA/ move file1 into sub-directory AAA in your home directory.
rm file1 remove or delete file1
mkdir dir1 create directory dir1
mkdir -p dirpath create the directory dirpath, including all implied directories in the path.
rmdir dir1 remove an empty directory
cat filename Dump a file to the screen in ascii.
head filename Show the first few lines of a file.
head -n filename Show the first n lines of a file.
tail filename Show the last few lines of a file.
tail -n filename Show the last n lines of a file.